Human Factors in Accidents and Engineering Design
Madden Accident Analysis & Forensic Engineering
8803 Brecksville Road, Suite 7-216, Cleveland, Ohio 44141
phone: 440-838-1191 fax: 440-838-1192
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  Experience and Qualifications of James D. Madden, P.Ein regard to Human Factors
Human Factors is an interdisciplinary science combining Normal Psychology with Engineering for the purpose of studying the interaction of persons with their surroundings, the human -mechanical interface, and the safety aspects of this interface. Normal Psychology is the study of 'typical', also known as 'normal' persons, and their interrelationship with their surroundings. This covers such subjects as perception, cognition, attention, response to hazards, and the practical functioning of the senses, such as eyesight and hearing. 
as part of the Bachelors and Masters degrees in Engineering, and additional college work after receiving the degrees, he took extensive coursework in Engineering    
acquired personal knowledge of Human Factors in practice and the human-machine and human-facility interfaces while working in industrial facilities, for 1 1/2 years full-time and then at times over the following 15 1/2 years while in engineering design, which directly built on the education in the principles of Human Factors acquired in college coursework in Engineering and Normal Psychology
during 17 years working in industrial operations and design engineering, used Human Factors as an integral part of engineering design, including specification of Safeguards and Warnings, which required the use of Human Factors.
As a forensic engineer for over 30 years, routinely use Human Factors in engineering analysis of accidents, and equipment and facilities involved in accidents, including analyzing Safeguards and Warnings which are present, and analyzing for the need for Safeguards and/or Warnings, which requires the use of Human Factors
Human factors is an applied science which is particularly important in the design of industrial equipment and machinery and consumer products to be safe in use and in proximity to persons. Human Factors is also an important factor in the design of safety containment devices, such as containers for chemicals, so that they function to protect users as they use hazardous materials. Common equipment safety features are the result of the application of human factors, and the consequent safety practices, to hazards common to many machine and equipment types. Such features include safeguards (physical guards, light curtains, dual operating buttons, safety instrumentation, etc.) and warnings, as well as design features to design out hazards
An alternative common term for human factors is ergonomics, although some Human Factors specialists consider this term to be more restrictive than the term Human Factors.
Human factors is an applied science, utilizing engineering in conjunction with normal psychology to design items and facilities used by persons so that the interaction between persons and the item or facility will be efficient and safe. Human Factors is also part of the engineering analysis of items and facilities to determine if the interaction between persons and these items and facilities will be safe. Such items can be of many physical types, such as industrial equipment, consumer products, components of equipment, etc.
Human Factors is the basis for Safety Design. Human Factors and Safety Design are the bases for the use of Safeguards and Warnings. Safeguards and Warnings are required by Safety Design principles. Human Factors and Safety Design are an important part of the basis for many generally accepted Codes, Standards and Recommended Practices. These subject areas are all closely related.
  Human Factors
  
  
  
Combined, Engineering and Normal Psychology are the scientific bases of Human Factors, and the related studies of the human-machine interface, human-facility interface, and responses to hazards. James D. Madden, P.E. has specific education in Engineering and Normal Psychology, as follows: 
  he minored in Normal Psychology, as part of the Bachelors degree work
earned the Professional Engineers license (P.E.) by taking the National Council of Engineering Examiners' examination in Fundamentals of Engineering and the Mechanical Engineering and Chemical Engineering sections of the National Council of Engineering Examiners' (NCEE) examination in Principles and Practices of Engineering
earned 2 Engineering degrees, Bachelor of Science and Master of Engineering, and took additional credit coursework post-degree, taking coursework in physics, chemistry, mathematics, engineering mechanics, mechanical engineering, chemical engineering and normal psychology
at the start of forensic work, completed refresher and additional post-degree college credit coursework and continuing education coursework in mechanical engineering, metallurgy and materials
designated a Diplomate Forensic Engineer by the National Academy of Forensic Engineers in accordance with the standards of the Council of Engineering and Scientific Specialty Boards (CESB)
  
  
  
  
  attended engineering seminars presented by the National Academy of Forensic Engineers
regularly attend additional technical courses and seminars each year to meet the requirements for continuing engineering education for the Professional Engineer's license
  over 40 years of engineering experience, with: 
  17 years experience in industrial operations, engineering design and construction assistance 
  30 years experience in forensic engineering, including:  
  working on over 1000 cases
  issuing over 600 reports and over 60 affidavits
  testifying in over 90 depositions and over 75 trials
  
  
Human Factors is important in the reconstruction of accidents because the subjects of human perception, cognition, attention, and the response to hazards, and the practical functioning of the senses, such as eyesight and hearing, are important aspects of determining how the accident happened, in particular how the human-mechanical interface was involved in the accident.
  
Engineering Analysis using Human Factors, along with Safety Design principles, is a routine and integral part of our evaluation of the safety of consumer products, equipment, all types of facilities, industrial and commercial operations, and construction activities. We routinely use Human Factors in accident reconstruction and engineering analyses regarding the human involvement in accidents.  
In the Forensic Engineering work in the Forensic Specialties, Human Factors is an integral, routine part of our reconstruction and engineering analysis of accidents and our engineering analysis of equipment and facilities involved in these accidents. 
Human Factors is often involved in our reconstruction of many accidents, such as Traffic Accidents, because a person's response to stimuli associated with a hazard is an aspect of Human Factors, and thus, in many cases, an aspect of determining how an accident occurred.  
  Our Work using Human Factors in Forensic Engineering Work
Safety features, such as Safeguards and Warnings, and their need and use, are based on Human Factors and Safety Design principlesHuman Factors is involved in our engineering analysis for the need for Safeguards and/or Warnings when one or the other is not present. Human Factors is also involved in our analysis of Safeguards and Warnings which are present, for their appropriateness and sufficiency. This involvement of Human Factors is a natural consequence of the derivation of the requirements for Safeguards and Warnings from the principles of Human Factors in conjunction with Safety Design principles and the Safety Design Hierarchy. 
<< click for a description of the typical activities and work performed
<< click for discussion of Human Factors
Human Factors and Safety Design principles are part of the bases of the best Codes, Standards and Recommended Practices. We routinely use Codes, Standards and Recommended Practices in our engineering analysis, and the associated Human Factors principles included in these Codes and Standards.
Table of Contents - Human Factors Page - links to content on this page
Human Factors
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Madden Accident Analysis & Forensic Engineering, through its Senior Forensic Engineer, James D. Madden, P.E., a licensed professional engineer, has performed Accident Investigations, Engineering Analyses and Accident Reconstructions routinely for accidents, incidents and cases located in Ohio, Pennsylvania, Michigan, and New York, in the technical areas which are noted in this website, as well as providing expert reports and testifying in court proceedings in these states in the capacity of an Expert Witness, including depositions, arbitrations and/or trials, with Forensic Engineering work also performed in, and/or for cases in, Illinois, Maryland, North Carolina, Vermont and Utah. 
Madden Accident Analysis & Forensic Engineering, through its Senior Forensic Engineer, James D. Madden, P.E., a licensed professional engineer, has performed Accident Investigations, Engineering Analyses and Accident Reconstructions for accidents, incidents and cases in the metropolitan areas of Cleveland, Akron, Canton, Toledo, Warren, Youngstown, Mansfield, Columbus, Dayton, Cincinnati, Lima, Findlay, Marietta and Steubenville, as well elsewhere throughout Ohio, and the metropolitan areas of Pittsburgh and Erie, as well as elsewhere throughout western and central Pennsylvania, and the metropolitan areas of Detroit, Ann Arbor, Lansing, Flint and Port Huron, as well as elsewhere in southern Michigan, and the metropolitan areas of Buffalo and Syracuse, as well as elsewhere in western and central New York state. In many of these areas James D. Madden, P.E. has provided expert reports and testified in the capacity of an Expert Witness in court proceedings, including depositions, arbitrations and/or trials.  
Madden Accident Analysis & Forensic Engineering, through its Senior Forensic Engineer James D. Madden, P.E., is available for Accident Investigations, Engineering Analyses, Accident Reconstructions, and testimony in deposition, arbitration and trial, for cases located throughout North America.
Contact us for more information  ▪  ph 440-838-1191 ▪  info@maddenforensic.com
Madden Accident Analysis & Forensic Engineering
30 Years Investigating, Analyzing, Reconstructing and Testifying about Accidents
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Over the last 30 years we have regularly worked on accidents which occurred in Ohio, Pennsylvania, Michigan, New York and nearby, including inspections of accident sites, equipment, and facilities, with reports and testimony. During these 30 years we have also worked on accidents which occurred in other states, and equipment and facilities located in other states, with inspections of accident sites, equipment, and facilities, from Utah and Kansas to Vermont and North Carolina, with reports and testimony for these accidents, when applicable.
  Geographic Area of Practice - North America 
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James D. Madden, P.E., while performing Forensic Engineering work full-time for over 
the last 30 years, for both plaintiff and defendant, has to date:
  Forensic Engineering Work by Senior Forensic Engineer James D. Madden, P.E. 
  completed over 1000 cases
  written and issued over 600 reports                  
  testified in over 90 depositions
  written and issued over 60 affidavits
  testified in over 75 trials                               
  Our Work using Human Factors, and its involvement in Our Forensic Engineering Work
  Human Factors Discussed
  Experience with Human Factors
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Phone: (440) 838-1191
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  inspection of the accident site, such as a roadway, outdoor facilities, building or industrial facilities
inspection of the involved equipment, in current condition, including in damaged condition (such as crashed vehicles); and when available for operation, during operation (such as industrial equipment)
  interviewing witnesses (often during the inspection of the accident site, product and/or equipment)
coordinating or interfacing with others while they are preparing specialized exhibits such as video animations and videos of demonstrations
review and study of case documents, evidence and applicable codes, standards, regulations and recommended practices
  written reports and affidavits, and exhibits
drawings, calculations, graphical analyses, computer analyses, etc. as required to analyze and reconstruct the accident, and to present the engineering analysis and reconstruction
  testing accident items and exemplar items (such as consumer products)
  photography and/or video of the accident site and involved equipment
  testimony in deposition, trial and arbitration